The Flow Dan Bacon Ebook 52
Download ➡ DOWNLOAD
The Flow Dan Bacon Ebook 52
SLR is projected to profoundly impact the U.S., and the rest of the world, with over half of the US population living along the coast, and a third living within 50 km of the coast (low evidence, medium agreement). Extreme ocean weather events have the potential to disturb nutrient flows and alter the hydrologic regimes (low evidence, low agreement). Trade-offs between sea-level rise and freshwater aquatic ES are high (low evidence, high agreement), increasing the potential for increased vulnerability to coastal ES services (Neumann and Sverdrup 2014 1252 ). Coastal SLR will increase costs in adapting to climate change, and will exacerbate trade-offs between food security and coast-related services (low evidence, high agreement). Future exposure to extreme ocean weather events may further increase trade-offs between food security and coastal ES services (low evidence, low agreement).
With the increase of the global population and the consequent demand for food and health services, the pressure of the food crises in many parts of the world may jeopardize the sustainability of PES. Such crises call for increased attention to monitoring and evaluation of PES, and, as of now, not many studies are available to provide PES management with information on its effect on current and future ES flows (Louvre and Pernet 2004 691 ).
Recent studies on the evidence and agreement on water supply sector ES show moderate evidence on the evidence of the importance of ES (Huete and Dormady 2007 821 ; Johnson et al. 2016 822 ; Davidson et al. 2017 823 ). There is also a moderate level of agreement on the importance of (freshwater) river ecosystem services (low evidence, low agreement) and the quality and status of water resources (low evidence, low agreement) as ES. Studies report higher levels of importance and quality of ES in the knowledge generated from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, India, Japan and Indonesia than in those from Canada and Australia (low evidence, high agreement). There are moderate levels of evidence and agreement (medium evidence, medium agreement) on the importance of agroecosystem services, and the trade-offs between competing sectors when water-related ES are affected by upstream cross-sectoral flows (e.g. agricultural ES affecting downstream urban and industrial ES). There is moderate agreement (low evidence, moderate agreement) on the evidence of the contribution of SLM to improving water quality and the environment (low evidence, high agreement). There is moderate evidence (low evidence, low agreement) on the evidence of the contribution of SLM to improving freshwater biodiversity. There is moderate evidence (medium evidence, low agreement) on the evidence of the importance of SLM to improving local food security (low evidence, moderate agreement).